Os pronomes pessoais, como o próprio nome já diz, são aqueles que indicam uma das três pessoas do discurso: a que fala, a com quem se fala e a de quem se fala.
Na Língua Inglesa, eles são posicionados antes do verbo, exercendo assim o papel de sujeito da oração.
I – eu
He – ele
She – ela
It – ele/ela
We – nós
You – vós/vocês
They – eles/elas
1) O pronome “I”, independente do seu posicionamento na frase, sempre será grafado com a letra maiúscula.
2) O pronome “it” é usado para referir-se a objetos e animais. Além disso, ele preenche a posição do sujeito nas oraçõs que, na Língua Portuguesa, não possuem sujeito. Ex.: Está chovendo. It is raining.
The past simple:
S + VPp + C.
EX.: I played tennis when I was twenty.
S + DID + NOT + VPp + C.
EX.: He didn’t go to your party because she was sick.
DID + S + VPp + C?
EX.: What language did she speak?
The past simple is used:
To talk about an action that took place in the past:
◦ He got up, paid the bill and left.
◦ I didn’t read the letter, I just gave it to Lee.
◦ What did you say?
NOTE: often a specific time in the past is mentioned:
◦ Did you speak to Amy yesterday?
◦ To talk about a state that continued for some time, but that is now finished:
◦ I went to school in Scotland.
◦ Did she really work there for ten years?
To talk about actions that happened regularly in the past:
◦ I often played tennis with her. She always won.
◦ They never went to the cinema when they lived in the country.
The present perfect:
S + HAVE/HAS + VPpp + C.
EX.: I’ve played tennis for ten years.
S + HAVE/HAS + NOT + VPpp + C.
EX.: She hasn’t been in London.
HAVE/HAS + S + VPpp + C?
EX.: Have you ever seen the rain?
The present perfect is used:
To talk about something that happened during a period of time that is not yet finished:
◦ The train has been late three times this week.
◦ He still hasn’t visited her.
When the time in the past is not mentioned, or is not important:
◦ He’s written a book.
◦ We’ve bought a new computer.
When the action finished in the past, but the effect is still felt in the present:
◦ He’s lost his calculator (and he still hasn’t found it.)
With for and since to show duration of an action or state up until the present:
◦ I have worked here since 1998.
◦ She hasn’t bought any new clothes for years.
In British English, with just, ever, already and yet:
◦ I’ve just arrived.
◦ Have you ever been here before?
◦ He’s already packed his suitcases.
◦ Haven’t you finished yet?
NOTE: in informal American English the past simple can be used with just, already and yet:
◦ He already packed his suitcases.
◦ Didn’t you finished yet?
The present perfect progressive:
S + HAVE/HAS + BEEN + VP + -ING + C.
EX.: I’ve been working a lot.
S + HAVE/HAS + NOT + BEEN + VP + -ING + C.
EX.: She hasn’t been doing her exercises.
HAVE/HAS + S + BEEN + VP + -ING + C?
EX.: Have you been working?
The present perfect progressive is used:
With for and since to talk about an activity that started in the past and is still happening:
◦ I’ve been working since eight o’clock.
◦ He’s been learning English for several years.
To talk about an activity that has finished, but whose results are visible now:
◦ My hands are dirty because I’ve been gardening.
The past progressive:
S + VTO BEp + VP + -ING + C.
EX.: You were studying last weekend.
S + VTO BEp + NOT + VP + -ING + C.
EX.: They weren’t eating rice.
VTO BEp + S + VP + -ING + C?
EX.: Where were you going last night?
The past progressive is used:
To talk about an action that was in progress at a particular time in the past:
◦ What were you doing in the summer of 1999?
◦ Was it raining when you left home?
To talk about something that was already in progress when something else happened. (You use the past simple for the action that interrupts it.):
◦ The doorbell rang with while they were having breakfast.
NOTE: As with the present progressive, this tense cannot be used with ‘state’ verbs:
◦ The fresh bread smelled wonderful. (NOT was smelling)
The past perfect:
S + HAD + VPpp + C.
EX.: I had finished the homework.
S + HAD + NOT + VPpp + C.
EX.: He hadn’t painted the kitchen.
HAD + S + VPpp + C?
EX.: Had you worked?
The past perfect is used:
To talk about something that happened before another action in the past:
◦ I had already met Ed before he came to Bath.
◦ When I got to the station, the train had left.
The past perfect progressive:
S + HAD + BEEN + VP + -ING + C.
EX.: I had been travelling.
S + HAD + NOT + BEEN + VP + -ING + C.
EX.: She hadn’t been working.
HAD + S + BEEN + VP + -ING + C?
EX.: Had you been watching TV?
The past perfect progressive is used:
With for or since to talk about an activity that started at a time further back in the past than something else:
◦ She hadn’t been living there very long when she met Mark.
To talk about an activity that had a result in the past:
◦ My hands were dirty because I had been gardening.
From: Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary. 7th edition.